We continue to seek new and innovative uses for scopolamine and plan to study its potential across a range of indications, including traumatic brain injury and postoperative nausea and vomiting. Our work with the Department of Defense, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Department of Veterans Affairs, and other institutions help advance our mission to improve the health of patients and help make the world a more secure place.
Motion sickness has the potential to impact almost everyone depending on the stimuli and environment. With an estimated lifetime incidence rate as high as 1 in every 3 people, motion sickness symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, disorientation, and fatigue, can impact a wide range of activities and situations.1
Learn more about our motion sickness medication that is being formulated for modern intranasal delivery technology.
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)
MDD affects many areas of life, including mood and behavior, and physical functions such as appetite and sleep. MDD is also frequently associated with suicidal ideation. Both, unfortunately, are on the rise:
- The incidence of depression among adults in the United States tripled at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic7
- According to the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI), depression is the leading cause of disability worldwide8
- More than 12 million adults in the United States experienced serious thoughts of suicide in 2020 alone8
- Suicide is the second leading cause of death in the United States among people aged 15 to 24 years9
- About 21 million U.S. adults—8.4% of the population—had at least one major depressive episode in 2020. While people of all ages, racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic backgrounds experience depression, it can affect some groups more than others.10
Based on earlier studies conducted by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), we plan to conduct additional research to validate the potential of scopolamine as a treatment for MDD, including suicidal ideation.
Safeguarding health through preparedness for a variety of external challenges is a key component to Defender’s mission. Countermeasures against a wide range of chemical and biological agents that pose a danger through accidental or intentional spread are crucial lines of defense in today’s world. Among the top priorities listed in an NIH report on countermeasures are effective and easily administered therapies that may expedite relief from symptoms after exposure to a diverse array of toxins.11
We are pursuing new defense countermeasures against chemical attacks.
- Cleveland Clinic. Motion Sickness: Symptoms and Causes. My.clevelandclinic.org. Updated January 18, 2021. Accessed April 26, 2022. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/12782-motion-sickness#symptoms-and-causes
- Turner M, Griffin MJ, Holland I. Airsickness and aircraft motion during short-haul flights. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2000;71(12):1181-1189.
- Petersen H. Sjoveiki [Seasickness]. Laeknabladid. 2012;98(12):653-659. doi:10.17992/lbl.2012.12.468
- Gahlinger PM. Cabin location and the likelihood of motion sickness in cruise ship passengers. J Travel Med. 2000;7(3):120-124. doi:10.2310/7060.2000.00042
- Kim M. Cybersickness: Why People Experience Motion Sickness During Virtual Reality. Inside Science. Published August 14, 2019. Accessed May 2, 2022. https://insidescience.org/news/cybersickness-why-people-experience-motion-sickness-during-virtual-reality
- North Atlantic Treaty Organization. (2021). STO Technical Report: Guidelines for Mitigating Cybersickness in Virtual Reality Systems.
- Alzueta E, Podhajsky S, Zhao Q, et al. Risk for depression tripled during the COVID-19 pandemic in emerging adults followed for the last 8 years. Psychol Med. 2021;1-8. doi:10.1017/S0033291721004062
- National Alliance on Mental Illness. Mental Health By the Numbers. Updated June 2022. Accessed August 4, 2022. https://www.nami.org/mhstats
- American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. Suicide in Children and Teens. Published June 2021. Accessed May 10, 2022. https://www.aacap.org/AACAP/Families_and_Youth/Facts_for_Families/FFF-Guide/Teen-Suicide-010.aspx
- National Alliance On Mental Illness. Depression | NAMI: National Alliance on Mental Illness. Nami.org. Published 2020. https://www.nami.org/About-Mental-Illness/Mental-Health-Conditions/Depression
- National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. The NIH Medical Research Program Directed Against Chemical Threats: 2017 Report on Research Progress and Future Directions.. Accessed August 4, 2022. https://www.niaid.nih.gov/sites/default/files/NIHChemicalPlan.pdf